It would be great if all the water energy available at a site could be converted directly into energy. Unfortunately, no matter how well a hydro facility is designed, power is lost in many ways:
- Hydraulic conveyance losses resulting from friction in the water flow both upstream and downstream of the turbines (see Head Loss)
- Losses within the turbine, which are accounted for in the efficiency of the turbine
- In the case of low head turbines, losses in the “speed increaser” gearbox
- Generators losses, which are accounted for in the efficiency of the generator.
- Losses in the High Voltage Switchgear that carries power from the generator to the generator transformer.
- Power taken off the High Voltage Bus to power the generator exciter and the station service system.
- Losses in the generator transformer
- Transmission line losses